Microcontrollers are designed to operate at low voltages, say 5V would be typical – but this doesn’t mean that it couldn’t be used for High Voltage and High Current applications. However to be able to use a microcontroller with High Voltage and High Current applications one needs to make the isolation interface which means that the microcontroller must always be isolated from the HV and HC parts of the system – how to do this? There are a lot of ways solid state isolators, opto-diacs and opto-couplers are some of the choices.
This application’s target is to be able to control an electric car’s DC motor. It uses an AtMega168 microcontroller for the control logic which includes pulse width modulation (PWM) for speed control. Now you could convert your gasoline-hungry motorcycle into a green-cycle!